Wednesday, 9 May 2018

UBAGUZI WA RANGI ULIVYOMKUMBA DR. AGGREY UKIWEMO WA NEW AFRICA HOTEL ENZI ZA UKOLONI NA KAMILI MUSSA

  
UBAGUZI WA RANGI ULIVYOMKUMBA DR. AGGREY UKIWEMO WA NEW AFRICA HOTEL ENZI ZA UKOLONI

Na Kamili Mussa


Dr. James Emmanuel Kwegyir Aggrey ni jina ambalo takriban 98% ya Watanzania hawalijui wala hawajawahi kulisikia.

Dr. Aggrey, mghana aliyetokea Achimota Ghana, ingawa kwa sasa ni marehemu, ni mwafrika ambaye bado anayeheshimika sana ulimwenguni licha ya kufariki miaka karibu 100 iliyopita.

Dr. Aggrey ameacha historia kubwa barani Afrika ikiwemo Tanzania. Katika maisha yake alikumbana na kila aina ya ubaguzi toka kwa wazungu.

Hapa Tanzania pia, ubaguzi wa rangi haukumuacha salama kwani alikumbana nao katika hoteli maarufu ya New Africa Hotel.

Hoteli hiyo ya New Africa Hotel iliyopo maeneo ya posta jijini Dar es Salaam, ilijengwa na Wajerumani baada ya kukabidhiwa Tanganyika kufuatia Berlin Conference 1884-85.

Enzi za ukoloni wa Mjerumani na Mwingereza, ilikuwa ni marufuku kwa Mwafrika kukanyaga hotelini hapo labda tu kwa kibali maalum au kama ni mfanyakazi wa hoteli hiyo.

Dr. Aggrey alikuja Tanganyika mwaka 1924 kama Mjumbe wa Phelps-Stokes Fund Commission kuja kuangalia jinsi ya kuwaendeleza Waafrika kielimu. Dr. Aggrey alikuwa Mwafrika pekee kwenye Commission hiyo. Commission iliundwa kutokana na Ms. Carolyne Phelps Stokes, ambaye alifariki mwaka 1909 na kuacha kitita cha fedha, ($ 1,000,000) na usia uliosema- "I bequeath the same to My trustees to be used for the education of Negros, both in Africa and the United States, North American Indian and needy and deserving white students".

Ni kutokana na wosia huu ndipo ilipoundwa Commission hiyo ambayo ilizuru mataifa kumi ya Afrika. Commission hiyo ilizuru Tanganyika na Zanzibar toka Machi 1924 hadi April 1924.

Baada ya Commission hiyo kuwasili jijini Dar es Salaam, wajumbe waliamua kufikia New Africa Hotel, moja ya hotel chache kubwa na ya kuheshimika nchini wakati huo.

Katika hali ya kusikitisha, Dr. Aggrey, akiwa Mwafrika pekee katika Commission hiyo, alikataliwa kupewa chumba katika hotel hiyo ya kutokana na Uafrika wake!

Hili jambo lilimuhuzunisha sana lakini hakukata tamaa na akaendelea na harakati zake za kuwasaidia waafrika wenzake kwa kadri alivyoweza.  Baada ya kukataliwa chumba, ilimbidi Dr. Aggrey akajitaftie chumba kwenye hoteli nyingine.

Dr. Aggrey, akiwa Dar es Salaam, ndiye aliyemshauri Kleist Sykes kuunda chama kwa maana ndiyo inhekuwa rahisi kupigania haki zao kwa pamoja. Kleist alikuwa kijana msomi mwenye kuzungumza Kijerumani na Kiingereza fasaha. Ilimchukua Kleist miaka mitano kuunda chama kiitwacho African Association (AA) hapo mwaka 1929 kwa minajiri ya kuwapigania Waafrika. African Association baadae ilibadilishwa na kuwa Tanganyika African Association (TAA) mwaka 1948. AA ndiyo iliyokuwa chimbuko la TANU iliyoanzishwa tarehe 7.7.1954.

Kutokana na wazo hilo muhimu kwa historia ya nchini yetu, wahenga watakumbuka kuwa iliamuliwa Dr. Aggrey apewe mtaa jijini Dar es Salaam kama kumbukumbu. Ndipo mtaa huo uliopo maeneo ya Kitumbini kuelekea Kariakoo, jijini Dar es Salaam ukapewa jina la Mtaa wa Aggrey.

Dr. Aggrey alikuwa ni mwalimu mwenye utaalamu wa hali ya juu aliyetambuliwa na kuheshimika duniani kote.

Mwaka 1895 akiwa Mwalimu wa shule ya Wesleyan Memorial School, alifanya mtihani, pamoja na waalimu wengine 119 nchi nzima ya Ghana, uliotungwa Uingereza. DR. AGGREY aliibuka Mwanafunzi Bora na ndiye pekee aliyepata Second Class na kutunukiwa cheti maalum.

Cheti hicho alichotunukiwa na Malkia wa Uingereza kiliandikwa-: "This Certificate of Distinction qualifies you, without further examination, to teach in any similar school in any British colony, the world over". Dr. Aggrey alikuwa Mwafrika wa kwanza kutunukiwa tuzo hiyo.

Commission hiyo, baada ya kutoka Tanganyika ilikwenda Belgian Congo. Huko, baada ya shughuli ya siku nzima za siku ya kwanza, Gavana (mzungu) akaialika Commission kwaajili ya Dinner, Ikulu. Gavana alipomuona Dr. Aggrey akiwa na wajumbe wengine ambao walikuwa ni wazungu aliamuru asiingie ndani hivyo akabaki mlangoni akiliwa mbu na kupigwa baridi hadi wenzake walipomaliza dinner!

Figisu hizi hazilumkatisha tamaa Dr. Aggrey na badala yake zilimpa nguvu zaidi kwani alielewa kuwa jukumu lake ni kuwasaidia Waafrika kielimu. Baada ya hapo Commission ilikwenda Angola ambako masaibu ya ubaguzi wa rangi yaliendelea dhidi yake ambapo kuna siku alichelewa kutoa mhadhara baada ya kusukumizwa nje ya treni kwavile tu ni mweusi!

Commission hiyo baada ya hapo ikaenda Afrika ya Kusini ambako Dr. Aggrey alitoa moja kati ya hotuba bora kabisa kuwahi kutolewa na Mwafrika ambapo, kwa ufupi, alisema: 

"By Education, I don't simply mean learning. I mean the training of the mind, in morals and in a hand that helps to make one socially efficient. Not simply the three R's, but the three H's ie the Head, the Hand and the Heart. No race or people can rise half slave, half free. The surest way to keep a people down is to educate the men and neglect the women. If you educate a man you simply educate an individual but if you educate a woman you educate a family."

"I am proud of my colour and whoever is not proud of his colour is not fit to live. Keep your temper and smile. That is what Jesus meant when he told men to turn the other cheek."

"I have no time for revenge that is not African. Some white people ought to be transformed to Negros just for a few days, so as to feel what we feel and suffer what we suffer. I prefer to be a Spokesman of my entire country: Africa, My Africa".

"My fellow Africans, I dont care what you know; show me what you can do. Many of you who get educated dont work, but take to drink. You see white people drink so you think you can drink too. You imitate the weakness of the white people, but not their greatness. You won't imitate a whiteman working hard".

"If you play only the white notes on a piano, you get only sharps; if only the black keys, you get flats. But if you play the two together you get harmony and beautiful music".

Baada ya kutoa muhadhara huo White settlers walichanganyikiwa kwa uwezo mkubwa wa Dr. Aggrey na na kiongozi wao akatamka-: Damn his colour, he is a saint!

Dr. Aggrey alikuwa ni mjuzi wa mambo mengi lakini hobby yake kubwa ilikuwa ni kusoma vitabu vya kila aina na alipenda kusema-: I want to know everything". Alikuwa akijisomea hadi usiku wa manani. Aliposinzia, alikuwaakichukua taulo akalichovya kwenye maji na kujifunga kichwani na kuweka miguu yake kwenye karai la maji ya baridi ili aendelee kusoma vitabu vyake! Kwa hakika, alipenda sana kusoma vitabu.

Dr. Aggrey alikuwa akiongea Queen's English na alipozuru US kwa mara ya kwanza, wamarekani hawakuamini kama Mwafrika angekuweza kuongea kwa lafudhi ile na kupelekea Waziri HEC Byrant aseme:

"He is dark as dark, but very few in America can use English as he can".

Dr. Aggrey alifariki dunia nchini US tarehe 30 Julai 1927 kutokana na ugonjwa wa Meningatis na kuzikwa North Carolina, US.



Kwa heshima ya Dr. Agrey, mwaka 2017 nchini Ghana, picha yake iliwekwa kwenye fedha ya nchi hiyo (5 Cedi Bill).

Huyo ndie Dr. James Emmanuel Kwegyir Aggrey mwenye mchango mkubwa katika historia ya taifa letu.

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