Showing posts with label historia. Show all posts
Showing posts with label historia. Show all posts

Tuesday, 14 November 2017


Ismail Jingo
Born Ismail Ali, to a family blessed with entertainers. Ismail showed his power in voice through recitation of the Quran and performing the Adhaan (Islamic call to prayer). Brother to the famous ‘D’ Rocky, Kenya’s answer to the wiggles and shaky leg of the King, Elvis Presley, and Mussa, a Limbo & Fire Eating Maestro who excelled as a reputable Drummer in his own right having seasoned with a number of groups both in Kenya and internationally.
Ismail-Jingo started his performing career as a Cabaret Night Club Entertainer, with Clubs such as Casablanca , Florida , Central & Rocco Bar in Mombasa .
He used his powerful Soulful voice to the extreme, belting out cover versions of Percy Sledge’s ‘When a Man Loves a Woman’ as good as the original if not better. He was also gifted in performing cover versions of ‘The God Father Of Soul’s’ extraordinary collections, likes of Super Bad, Mother Popcorn, I Feel G, Sex Machine etc,
Jingo moved to Nairobi, where all was happening Musically and under the management of a renowned Entertainment Entrepreneur, Jack, he formed the Group, Gloria Africana. At this time Air Fiesta Matata, led by Steele Beauttah was the top group on the local scene. Air Fiesta was based at the famous Starlight Club, opposite the Pan Afric Hotel, that was demolished in later years and is now the Trade Centre Building.
Jingo & his Gloria Africana Band performed at the Embakassi Airport Nairobi, to welcome ‘The God Father of Soul’, Mr James Brown, who was in transit to Zambia for a series of shows. It is said by people who witnessed theshow that his performance of James Brown’s, ‘Talkin Loud & Saying Nothing’ was so well done, that the Godfather of Soul joined Jingo on the on Runaway Stage to do his thing.
Jingo & Gloria Africana were bouncing between Pop-In Restaurant on Kimathi Street, in what is now the Building next to the Nation Centre, and Arcadia Night Club, formerly Bonanza Club, previously also known as the Sal Davis Night Club, today known as The New Florida Night Club, Koinange Street, Nairobi.
Competition was intense, each group trying to outdo the other, and this proved very fruitful as creativity improved. Air Fiesta landed a contract with the “President” label in the UK, moved on abroad, following closely in the footsteps of Paddy’s The Ashantis who were already abroad. There they recorded a number of hits, the best known being, ”I Wanna Do Ma Thing”, with Anwar Rishard in the lead vocals.
Jingo moved on, performing at various clubs in Kenya and across the borders in Zambia , Ethiopia , Tanzania and the Middle East .
He later returned with a bang, just in time for the competitive seventies and recorded the Hit Track, “Fever”.
Unlike the other Artistes Jingo’s “Fever” was self sponsored, as he did not trust any of the local recording companies and producers, he was given a lot of assistance by Night Club, Dj cum Manager of Club 1900, Seif Heri in the production.
“Fever” was an instant hit, it dominated the Air Waves, Clubs and if Matatus were what they are today “Fever” would be the number one hit in the Matatu Charts. In the recent years the track “Fever” featured as one of the sound recordings in the Award winning British film, “The Last King of Scotland”, a story about Ugandan Leader General Idi Amin Dada, the movie won the Best Actors Award.
He featured in a BBC Musical Documentary with Taso Stefano & Makonde, Taraab King Juma Bhalo and Radio DJ Abdulhaq with a Big Q.The Film was titled, Afro-Rock, Sweet Sounds of Honey and aired in the UK in 1978.
Jingo had other follow up hits and soon gave up releasing any new songs due to the intense piracy of music that plagued Kenya then and still does to this date.
He reverted back to live performances and eventually settling in Club Management at the prestigious Beach resorts in Mombasa , Kenya .
Ismail “Ali” Jingo was found dead in his Hotel apartment at the South Coast , Mombasa , Kenya , cause of death was presumably Massive Cardiac Arrest.
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Sunday, 12 November 2017


World War II and Political Foundation in Tanganyika, 1938-1945

The Burma Infantry, 1942


Right: Abdulwahid Sykes and Ally Sykes in Burma 1942

Abdulwahid-the name means the ‘servant of one and only’ meaning Allah-was the grandson of Sykes Mbuwane, a lone wanderer who laid down his life in Tangayika, serving the Germans. In school Abdulwahid was always on top of his class. After completing his lower primary education at Al Jamiatul Muslim School he was selected to join Dar es Salaam Government School where he was taught by Mwalimu Mdachi Sharifu. Sharifu was the President of Tanganyika Territory African Civil Services  Association (TTACSA). Abdulwahid completed standard ten, did his qualifying examination for Makerere College and passed. On considering his father’s political background, the colonial government refused to recommend Abdulwahid for Makerere entrance on the pretext that the candidate was under age. Abdulwahid was at that time seventeen years old. He was considered underage to pursue studies at Makerere but old enough to be conscripted into the King’s African Rifles (KAR).

Military tradition was continuing in the family. Abdulwahid’s father, Kleist, had joined the German army in 1906 at the  age  of twelve. The Germans had by then pacified Tanganyika. Chief Mkwawa had killed himself rather than be captured by Germans and Abushiri was captured and hanged. The Maji Maji War was coming to an end with terrible loss of African life. There was also a loss of community leaders who were rounded up and hanged because of their participation in leading their people to revolt against German rule; hanged in public as a lesson to deter others from ‘rebellion’. When World War I broke out in 1914, Kleist, then twenty years old, fought against the British under German command. He was in the army together with Effendi Plantan’s son Schneider. Kleist  was wounded and was never to recover until the end of the war. Schneider was also wounded in one leg and he was to remain with a limp throughout his life. After the war, Kleist wrote his memoirs of the campaign. The passion in the memoirs were captured by Daisy’s biography of her grandfather.  The biography reveal the inner feelings and bitter experiences of an African.  Kleist considered himself as a tool of exploitation in the hands of European powers. 

In 1941 Abdulwahid was compulsorily conscripted in the kar to fight overseas. This was a big blow to Kleist. His son was on the admission list of Makerere College. Kleist had high ambition and great expectations for his son. This shattered his dream. He did not know if his son would survive the war. In 1933 he wrote a will in which he poured his heart out to his sons. He told them it was his wish, if God permits, to educate them to the highest level, to Makerere and abroad. But should he die before he accomplished the task, then they should fulfil that ambition themselves by supporting each other. Kleist was not a person of empty words. He made sure that he left his children with enough resources to accomplish the task. When this will was read after his death in 1949, the political climate in Tanganyika was rapidly changing-and so was the fate of Abdulwahid and his young brothers.

Another blow was soon to follow.  After Abdulwahid’s conscription, Ally ran away at the age of fifteen  to volunteer for the war. Ally ran away from home because he knew his parents would not allow him to join his brother in the KAR. He envied his elder brother for being away from home, far from the control of Kleist who was a strict disciplinarian. Kleist ruled his house as if it was a military barrack. Ally was under age and Kleist thought the government would disqualify him. But since Ally had volunteered out of his own free will he was accepted with open arms. Ally, like his elder brother, was sent to Kabete for training.

When Ally joined the KAR, Abdulwahid had already left for Nairobi, Kenya, to undergo military training in the infantry. By then Abdulwahid had already left for Ceylon (Sri Lanka) after being given leave of absence to come home to bid farewell to his parents. Kleist travelled to Nairobi to see Ally before his departure for Ceylon but was barred from the camp. A double tragedy had struck Kleist, as he had two sons in the war fighting for his enemy, the British. Kleist had no blood relations apart from his three children. He had tried to make contact with his relatives in Mozambique but to no avail. If his two sons were to die... the thought was unbearable. Kleist and his wife Bibi Mruguru Mussa were left only with young Abbas to comfort them.

Unlike her husband Bibi Mruguru Mussa could not contain her anguish.[1] She had been married to Kleist when she was thirteen years old and bore her first son Abdulwahid when she was fifteen. For her sons to join the war meant sure death. Reports were being received in Dar es Salaam every day from overseas of soldiers dying in combat. Bibi Mruguru considered her boys as good as dead.  She could not eat or sleep and she cried most of the time, at times flinging herself to the ground in anguish. Neighbours and friends comforted her by reminding her that the children were not dead and that to lament over them was to court misfortune. Kleist suffered silently and went about his business as if nothing mattered. He was too proud a man to show his true feelings.  Every morning Bibi Mruguru used to go to the recruiting center to enquire about her children.   

Abdulwahid and Ally went abroad to serve under the Military Labour Service. [2] This was formed in July 1940 when Italy under Mussolini joined the war. The purpose of military labour was to help the Allied forces in the war effort, the recruits drawn from civilian population being put under military discipline. The recruits enjoyed the privileges of military personnel as regards rations, accommodation, medical attention, pension and compensation for wounds or death. A depot was established at Kabete near Nairobi to give basic military training. Basic pay was twelve shillings per month including ration and uniforms. The highest rank open to Africans was sergeant, who was paid more than the ordinary askari

African askaris were transported overseas from Mombasa escorted by the Royal Navy to ward off attack from deadly Japanese submarines. Africans were first sent to Ceylon for jungle war training to form the famous Burma Infantry to fight the Japanese. The Burma Infantry was formed by Africans from many countries including Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Nyasaland (Malawi), Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana), Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika.  Some of these African askaris had seen action in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and Somaliland (Somalia) where the British and South Africans had engaged the Italians.  Owing to the successful campaign of this unit in Abyssinia there was an urgent need for pioneers. This was the reason behind the colonial government’s call for volunteers. African volunteers to the war effort were effective and decisive in the outcome of the war.

In 1943 Ally left the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa in a convoy of ships heading for Ceylon escorted by the Royal Navy. The ship which Ally boarded was an ocean liner meant exclusively for whites on holiday during peacetime. The vessel was not meant to carry Africans let alone askaris. It was not even built to ferry poor whites. It was a luxury ocean liner for rich Europeans. Under normal conditions, an African who by the very remote chance sailed on that ship would have been a steward to serve drinks, wait on the English gentlemen and their ladies having dinner under candlelight, sweep and scrub the floor, make the beds and clean the toilets. But now Britain was engaged in a fierce war against powerful enemies, Germany, Japan and Italy. Its very existence and survival as a nation was at stake, let alone the survival of its colonies scattered all over the world. Britain could not afford the luxury of the master-servant relationship during the war. If the ocean liner could take English gentlemen to the Caribbean for holidays it could also take African askaris to war to die for the King and country.

While Ally’s convoy was sailing towards Colombo one of the ships was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. The vessel sank, killing all African askaris and their white officers on board. Only one askari from Tanga known as Magembe escaped.   African askaris were not informed about the tragedy until when they arrived in Colombo. The white officers thought if Africans were to be informed about the tragedy while still in the high seas there would be general panic and that was bad for morale.

When Ally arrived at Kurnegala camp outside Colombo, Abdulwahid had already been there for more than a year with the Service Corps. His unit dealt with transportation and communication. Abdulwahid was fluent in both English and Arabic; and because of this he was promoted  from corporal to sergeant.The army bulletin Second Echelon, published weekly and circulated among military camps of the allied forces, published Ally’s name and number by mistake as among those who had perished at sea. Abdulwahid learnt of the ‘death’ of his young brother from the bulletin and he in  turn communicated the sad news to his father back home.

It was only when Ally arrived at Kurnegala and talked to Abdulwahid on the phone that he realized that his brother was very much alive. Ally remembers that it was in the evening when he arrived at the camp and the night curfew was on. Nobody was allowed to be out of the camp. Abdulwahid was in another camp nearby and was so anxious  to see his young brother that he drove to the camp with the curfew still  on to see Ally. Abdulwahid had at that time been promoted to Quarter Master Sergeant. Because of his position, camp rules were not binding on him and was allowed out of the camp at night. Although he was normally chauffeur driven, on that night he decided to drive himself in his jeep to see his young brother and to get news from home. In a strange twist of fate, Abdulwahid’s driver in Burma came to be one of the top brass in the Tanganyikan Army.

At Kurnegala, African askaris underwent jungle training for four months and then sailed to Burma from Trincomalee. From there they sailed to Chittagong. All the time they were sailing in convoy escorted by the British Royal Navy and moved slowly, keeping to safe waters, always on the lookout for Japanese attack. It was at Chittagong where African askaris got the first taste of what the Burma infantry had in store for them. There was a distance of about ten km. between the harbour and the camp. The road was rough and always covered with mud which was ankle deep due to heavy monsoon rains.  The camp was dirty with mud all over the place. An askari had to carry his heavy luggage to the camp. He would have a kitbag, haversack, gun and bullets. They had also to dig trenches that very day both for themselves and their white officers. The camp gave an indication to the African askari of what they would have to endure even before they had been shot at by the Japanese.

Africans were considered ‘military labour’, while fellow whites like Americans and New Zealanders were identified as ‘allies’. These semantics were probably not lost upon African askaris. Africans were by the term reduced to muscle force without brains and  tools to be used to accomplish a difficult task.  African askaris were labelled as natives, classified into English speaking and non-English speaking. A British soldier’s salary was much higher than one drawn by an African of the same rank. Food was categorized according to race. There was a European, an Asian and an African diet; African diet being the poorest. A British soldier was provided with what was known as ‘family allotment allowance’ to support his family back home. There was no such allowance for Africans. Africans were given rum as part of their diet while whites were provided with brandy, whisky and beer.

It was only when Africans began to engage the Japanese in combat in Burma that the same diet was provided for all combatants irrespective of their race. This diet was known as the ‘K’ ration in military parlance and was dropped from the air by the British Royal Air Force.  In spite of this sacrifice, the British discriminated against Africans. The African askari, though indispensable, was looked down upon by fellow whites fighting under the same command. This discrimination aroused in them a new sense of self-examination and identity. 

After reaching Chittagong and staying there for a  few days,  they were transported to Imphal, Burma, by lorries of the Indian Army. Imphal is of very great historical significance to members of the Burma infantry from Tanganyika. It was here on Christmas eve of 1945 that Abdulwahid and other askaris, including his young brother Ally and James Mkande, made a pact to found a political party when they returned home after the war.  Imphal was the command center for the Burma infantry and was a danger zone where the Japanese were in action against the British. Many African askaris including Tanganyikans died in Burma so that the sun would not set on the British Empire.  Whoever won the war would have put Africans in bondage. It really did not matter which master was to rule over them. In Burma, Ally as an English-speaking askari served in the Education Corps. He taught European soldiers Kiswahili so that they would communicate with Africans, particularly those who came from East Africa. He also taught illiterate Africans to read and write, and how to read maps in order to get their bearings in the confusing jungle terrain.

It was at Imphal towards the end of the war that Abdulwahid and the rest of the Burma infantry sat down to reflect on their own war experience and the future of Tanganyika. It was decided that the Burma infantry from Tanganyika forming the 6th Battalion should form the base for a future political party to fight for independence. This was agreed. The Burma infantry from Tanganyika should form the base for a future political party to free the country through popular mass action. The name of the political party was to be Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Ally Sykes remembers that Abdulwahid wrote the name of the proposed party in his diary. The Burma infantry was also aware that back home there was the African Association fighting for African rights. Abdulwahid knew a great deal about the association because his own father was its founding secretary. How the intended party was to be incorporated in the African Association, was not, however, discussed.

Abdulwahid served in Kenya, Ceylon, India and Burma. Even before he was twenty-one years old he had risen to the rank of Regimental Sergeant-Major. This was the highest rank that could be achieved by an African. The other high rank which could be achieved by an African was that of honorary Captain which the British conferred upon Kabaka Edward Mutesa of Buganda and Chief Adam Sapi Mkwawa of the Hehe. But Kabaka Mutesa and Chief Adam Sapi Mkwawa [3] were awarded these military ranks because of theirs status as traditional rulers, while Abdulwahid earned his because of his courage, exemplary leadership qualities and smartness. Abdulwahid was also decorated with four medals-the Burma Star,1939-1945, War Medal, Defence Medal and Victory Medal.   

At the end of the war European troops forming the Allied Forces were demobilised earlier than the Africans on the claim that they were urgently needed in Europe for post-war reconstruction. African troops were released last. The KAR from Tanganyika were regrouped at Kalieni camp outside Bombay for repatriation home. While at Kalieni, Abdulwahid met his friend from home Ahmed Rashad Ali, a Zanzibari. Ahmed Rashad was a star footballer and had gone to India for studies. As the African troops from Tanganyika sailed back for home morale was very high; the only subject occupying their conversation was how would they be able to drive the British out of  Tanganyika.




[1]Information from Mwalimu Bahia interviewed in 1990.
[2]See Major St. J. Orde Browne, Labour Adviser to the Secretary of State for Colonies, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1946, Colonial No. 93. 
[3]Chief Adam Sapi Mkwawa's biography appears in Baragumu, April 12, 1956. He was educated at Tabora and Makerere where he went to study medicine. He did not complete his study as he was forced to return home to become chief of the Wahehe. He was elected member of the Legislative Council in 1947 at the age of 27. In 1955 Abdulwahid and Dossa were invited by Adam Sapi to Kalenga at the ceremony of handing over the skull of Chief Mkwawa to his great-grandson Adam Sapi. Chief Mkwawa was secretly recruited into TANU by Dossa Aziz thus becoming one of the very few traditional rulers to support the Party. For information on chiefs who supported TANU see Sauti ya TANU, No. 22 of 28 th February, 1958.

Askari wa Miguu wa Burma, 1942 (The Burma Infantry)


Kulia Abdulwahid Sykes na mdogo wake Ally Sykes
wakiwa katika kikosi cha Burma Infantry 1942
Utangulizi

Nimehamasishwa na kipindi cha Al Jazeera ‘’The Burma Boys,’’ kuhusu askari kutoka Afrika ambao walipigana katika King’s African Rifles (KAR) katika misitu ya Burma dhidi ya Wajapani wakati wa Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia (1938 – 1945). Kipindi hiki kimeeleza historia ya askari kutoka Ghana na Nigeria. Nimeona niweke hapa yale ambayo marehemu Ally Sykes alinieleza kuhusu askari waliotoka Tanganyika kwenda kupigana Burma yeye na kaka yake wakiwa miongoni mwa 
askari hao.

Abdulwahid - jina limaanishalo 'Mtumishi wa Allah, Mmoja na Aliye Pweke alikuwa mjukuu wa Sykes Mbuwane, shujaa aliyetoka mbali na kupoteza maisha yake Tanganyika, akipigana katika jeshi la Wajerumani. Shuleni Abdulwahid alikuwa daima anaogoza katika darasa lake. Alipomaliza masomo yake ya msingi katika Al Jamiatul Muslim School alichaguliwa kuingia shule ya serikali (Dar es Salaam Government School) ambako alifundishwa na Mwalimu Mdachi Shariff. Shariff alikuwa rais wa Tanganyika Territory African Civil Service Association (TTACSA). Abdulwahid alimaliza darasa la kumi na kufanya mtihani wa kuingia Makerere College ambao aliongoza. Serikali ya kikoloni, kutokana na msimamo wa siasa wa baba yake, ilimfanyia khiyana asiingie Makerere kwa kisingizio kwamba alikuwa na umri mdogo. Wakati huo Abdulwahid alikuwa na umri wa miaka kumi na saba. Ingawa Waingereza waliuonaumrihuu mdogo kuendelea na masomo katika Makerere, lakini Waingereza waliuona kamautoshao kumwandikisha kwenda kupigana vita kama askari katika Kingís African Rifles (KAR)!

Mwaka wa 1941 Abdulwahid, bila ya khiyari yake aliandikishwa katika jeshi la KAR kwenda kupigana katika Vita Vya Pili vya Dunia vilivyokuwa vinaendelea Ulaya na sehemu nyingine za dunia. Hili lilikuwa pigo kubwa kwa Kleist. Mwanaye alikuwa bado yupo katika orodha ya wanafunzi waliokuwa wakitaraji kuingia Makerere College huko Uganda. Kleist alikuwa na matumaini makubwa kwa mwanae. Kuchukuliwa kwa Abdulwahid kwenda vitani kulikatisha ndoto yake kabisa. Kleist hakuwa na uhakika kama mwanae angenusurika au angerudi jina tu. Mwaka 1933 Kleist aliandika usia ambamo ulionyesha mapenzi aliyokuwa nayo kwa watoto wake. Aliwaambia katika usia ule kuwa ilikuwa ni mapenzi yake, Mwenyezi Mungu akijaalia, kuwasomesha hadi kufikia kiwango cha juu kabisa,  Makerere ama Ulaya. Ikitokea atafariki kabla ya kutekeleza azma hii, aliwataka waitimize nia yake hii wao wenyewe kwa kusaidiana. Kleist hakuwa mtu wa maneno matupu. Alihakikisha anawaachia watoto wake mali ya kutosha ili kukamilisha haja hiyo. Usia huu uliposomwa baada ya kufa kwake mwaka 1949, hali ya siasa nchini Tanganyika ilikuwa ikibadilika kwa haraka - na vivyo hivyo majaliwa ya Abdulwahid na nduguze.

Askari wa zamani waliopigana katika jeshi la Wajerumani dhidi ya Waingereza katika ardhi ya Tanganyika wakati wa Vita Kuu vya Kwanza vya Dunia kati ya mwaka 1914-1918 walimuunga mkono Hitler, ingawa si wazi wazi kwa kuwa kufanya hivyo kungekuwa usaliti na uhaini dhidi ya Himaya ya Waingereza. Hata hivyo hilohalikumzuia Schneider Plantan, askari wa Kijerumani wa Vita Kuu vya Kwanza vya Dunia, kutembea huku na kule katika mitaa ya Dar es Salaam akiwachochea watu wasimuunge mkono Winston Churchill katika vita vyake dhidi ya Adolf Hitler. Schneider alikamatwa na kuwekwa kizuizini huko Mwanza, na hakufunguliwa hadi mwisho wa vita mwaka 1945. Wengi wa askari hawa,waliokuwa katika jeshi la Wajerumani katika Vita Kuu ya Pili walikuwa wamepitisha umri wa katikati. Hivi Vita vikuu viwili vilikuwa vimetengana kwa miaka ishirini na nne tu. Askari hawa wa zamani walikuwa na kumbumbu za kile walichokiona kuwa utawala wa haki na uadilifu wa "Wadachi", Kama Wajerumani walivyokuwa wakiitwa na wazee hao wakongwe wa Vita ya Kwanza ya Dunia. Lakini Kleist hakukubaliana na mtazamo huu. Alikuwa na fikra zake mwenyewe za haki na uadilifu. Alikuwa anavipinga vita hivyo kwa sababu yeye aliifahamu vyema hatma ya vita vile kwa Waafrika wa Tanganyika.  Alijua iwangeendelea kutawaliwa tu ingawa safari hii huenda akaja mtawala mwingine.

Baada ya Abdulwahid kupelekwa vitani na Waingereza, pigo jingine lilifuatia. Ally alitoroka nyumbani akaenda kwenye kambi ya jeshi la Waingereza na kujitolea kuwa askari wa KAR Ally akiwa na umri wa miaka kumi na tu. Kituo cha kuandikisha askari kilikuwa Kilwa Road. Ally alitoroka kwa sababu alijua wazazi wake wasingemruhusu kujiunga na jeshi.  Alimuonea gere kaka yake kwa kuwa mbali na nyumbani akiwa huru, tena mwenye kujitegemea, na kuwa na maamuzi yake mwenyewe mbali na amri za baba yao. Kleist alikuwa mkali sana.  Aliitawala nyumba yake kama kambi ya jeshi. Hakuwa mtu wa kupenda mchezo ama upuuzi. Ally alikuwa chini ya umri uliotakiwa kuajiriwa vitani. Kleist alidhania serikali ingetilia maanani umri mdogo wa Ally na hivyo kutompokea katika KAR. Lakini maadam Ally alikuwa amejitolea kwa khiari yake mwenyewe, Waingereza walimpokea kwa mikono miwili. Kama kaka yake, Ally alipelekwa Kabete kwa mafunzo ya kijeshi ili kwenda kupigana Burma.

Ally alipojiunga na KAR Abdulwahid alikuwa tayari ameondoka kwenda Nairobi, Kenya kupata mafunzo ya kijeshi kama askari wa miguu. Ally alipowasili Kabete kwa mafunzo, Abdulwahid alikuwa tayari ameondoka kwenda Ceylon (Sri Lanka) baada ya kupewa likizo ya kurudi nyumbani kuaga wazazi wake. Kleist alisafiri kwenda Nairobi kuonana na Ally kabla ya kuondoka kwake kwenda Ceylon, lakini alizuiwa kuingia kambini kumuaga mwanae. Misiba miwili ilikuwa imemsibu Kleist alikuwa na watoto wawili vitani wakimpigania adui wake wa zamani, Mwingereza. Kleist hakuwa na ndugu wengine wa damu mbali ya watoto wake watatu. Alijaribu kuwasiliana na ndugu zake nchini Msumbiji lakini bila mafanikio. Kleist alihangaishwa na mawazo.  Vipi ikiwa hawa wanawe wawili watafariki... fikra hiyo ilikuwa nzito. Kleist na mkewe Bibi Mruguru Mussa walibakia na kijana mmoja tu Abbas kuwafariji.

Bibi Mruguru, tofauti na mume wake hakuweza kuwa na subira na kuzuia uchungu wake moyoni. Alikuwa ameolewa na Kleist alipokuwa na umri wa miaka kumi na tatu tu na alimzaa mwanae wa kwanza Abdulwahid akiwa na umri wa miaka kumi na tano. Kwake yeye, wanae kwenda vitani kulimaanisha kifo. Taarifa zilikuwa zikipokelewa mjini Dar es Salaam kila siku toka ng'ambo Kuhusu askari waliokuwa wakipoteza maisha katika mapambano. Bibi Mruguru aliwaona watoto wake kama tayari wameshaaga dunia. Hakuweza kula au kulala na alilia karibu wakati wote, wakati mwingine akijitupa chini kwa uchungu. Majirani na marafiki walimfariji kwa kumuambia: '’Bi Mluguru acha kulia usiwachurie watoto kwani watoto wangali hai na kuwalilia ilikuwa ni sawasawa na kuwachimvia.’’ Kwa woga wa watoto wao kupelekwa vitani, baadhi ya wazazi waliwaficha watoto wao wakubwa uani na kuwakataza kutoka nje. Kwa mila za watu wa pwani uani ni mahali pa wanawake. Wanaume hawakai huko, kwao wao ni barazani.  Kleist alistahamili kimya kimya na alikuwa akifanya shughuli zake kama kwamba hakuna jambo lolote lililotokea. Kleist alikuwa mtu jasiri na ilikuwa nadra kudhihirisha hisia zake. Kila asubuhi Bibi Mruguru alikwenda kwenye kituo cha kuandikisha askari pale Kilwa Road kuulizia habari za wanae.

Abdulwahid na Ally walikwenda ng’ambo kutumika chini ya Military Labour Service. Kikosi hiki kilianzishwa Julai 1940 wakati Italia, chini ya Mussolini, ilipojiunga na vita upande wa Wajerumani. Madhumuni ya kikosi hiki ilikuwa kusaidia majeshi ya washirika kwa kuwaingiza raia katika vita,  kuwafundisha mbinu za vita na kuwekwa chini ya nidhamu ya jeshi. Askari hawa kutoka uraiani walipewa kila kitu sawa na askari wa KAR kuanzia posho, mahali pa kulala, tiba, malipo ya uzeeni na malipo endapo ulemavu au kifo vitatokea. Kambi ya kuwafunza ilijengwa Kabete karibu na Nairobi kwa ajili ya mafunzo ya awali. Mshahara kamili ulikuwa shilingi kumi na mbili kwa mwezi, posho ya kila siku pamoja na sare. Cheo kikubwa kwa Waafrika kilikuwa sajini, koplo na koplo lansi. Hawa walikuwa wakilipwa mishahara zaidi ya askari wa kawaida.
Askari waliondoka na meli kuelekea vitani kupitia Kilindini, Mombasa. Meli hizo zilisindikizwa na Jeshi la Wanamaji wa Uingereza (Royal Navy) ili kuzilinda na mashambulizi kutoka nyambizi hatari za Wajapani. Waafrika walikuwa wa kwanza kupelekwa Ceylon kwa mafunzo ya vita vya msituni kuunda lile jeshi lililokuja kuwa maarufu la askari wa miguu la Burma (Burma Infantry). Jeshi hili ndilo lililokuja kupigana na Wajapani. Jeshi hili la askari wa miguu liliundwa na Waafrika kutoka nchi nyingi.  Lilikuwa na Waafrika toka Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana), Kenya, Uganda na Tanganyika. Baadhi ya askari hawa waliwahi kupigana Abyssinia, (Ethiopia) na Somaliland (Somalia) ambako Waingereza na Makaburu wa Afrika ya Kusini walipambana na Wataliani. Kutokana na kampeni iliyofanikiwa ya kikosi hiki nchini Abyssinia, ilionekana kuwa ni muhimu kuunda kikosi kama hiki kwa haraka.  Hii ndiyo ilikuwa sababu ya serikali kutoa wito kutaka watu wa kujitolea kujiunga na KAR. Hawa Waafrika waliojitolea katika vita hivi walileta taathira kubwa na kusababisha ushindi wa Waingereza katika vita ile.

Mwaka wa 1943 Ally aliondoka bandari ya Mombasa katika msafara wa meli ukielekea Ceylon huku wakisindikizwa na wanamaji wa Kiingereza. Meli aliyopanda Ally ilikuwa ya abiria ambayo katika siku za amani ilikusudiwa iwachukue Wazungu tu wakati wa likizo. Chombo hicho hakikusudiwa kuwa na abiria Waafrika sembuse askari weusi. Chombo kile hakikuundwa kuwachukua abiria hata Wazungu mafukara. Ilikuwa meli ya anasa kwa ajili ya Wazungu matajiri. Wakati meli ile inafanya safari zake za kawaida wakati wa amani Mwafrika ambae kwa bahati angekuwa ndani yake angekuwa mtumishi wa kuwahudumia abiria wazungu. Kazi yake ingekuwa kuwapelekea vinywaji, kuwasubiri mabwana  wa Kiingereza na wake zao wakila chakula cha jioni huku wakimulikwa na miangaza ya mishumaa. Waafrika hawa kazi zao nyingine labda ingekuwa kufagia na kusugua sakafu, kutandika vitanda na kusafisha vyoo. Lakini sasa Uingereza ilikuwa ikipigana vita vikali dhidi ya adui wenye nguvu, Ujerumani, Japan na Italia. Uingereza kuendelea kuwepo kama taifa kulikuwa hatarini, achilia mbali kunusurika kwa makoloni yake yaliyotawanyika duniani kote. Haikuwa katika hali ya kuangalia nani bwana na nani mtwana. Ikiwa ile meli ya abiria iliweza kuwachukua waungwana wa Kiingereza kwenda Carribean kwa likizo kustarehe chini ya vivuli vya minazi, basi ingeweza vilevile kuwachukua Waafrika kwenda vitani kufa kwa ajili ya Mfalme.

Wakati msafara wa Ally ulipokuwa baharini kuelekea Colombo, moja ya meli ilipigwa kombora na nyambizi ya Wajapani. Chombo hicho kilizama na kuwaua askari wote pamoja na maafisa wao Wazungu. Askari mmoja tu kutoka Tanga aliyekuwa akijulikana kama Magembe ndiye  aliyenusurika. Askari kwenye meli zingine hawakujulishwa juu ya msiba huu hadi walipowasili Colombo. Maafisa Wazungu walidhani kuwa kama Waafrika wangejulishwa kuhusu msiba ule wakiwa bado katika bahari wangetaharuki na kuvunjika moyo.  Licha yA Waafrika kujitoa muhanga, Wazungu waliwabagua askari weusi. Waafrika walipachikwa jina la ëmilitary labourí (vibarua wa kijeshi), wakati ambapo Wazungu kutoka Marekani na New Zealand walitambulika kama ëalliesí (washirika) ingawa wote walikuwa wanapigana vita moja chini ya amri moja..

Waafrika kwa kupewa nembo kama hizo walihisi kudhalilishwa na kujiona kuwa wao kazi yao kubwa ilikuwa kutafuta ushindi kutokana na nguvu za misuli yao; akili zao hazikuwa na nafasi katika vita vile. Wao walikuwa ni sawa na zana isiyokuwa na fikra, zana ya kutumiwa kukamilisha kazi ngumu. Askari Waafrika waliitwa natives  yaani wenyeji. Hao wenyeji vilevile walibaguliwa kati ya wenyeji wasemao-Kiingereza na wasiosema-Kiingereza. Mshahara wa askari wa Kiingereza ulikuwa wa juu zaidi kuliko wa Mwafrika katika cheo kilekile. Chakula kilitolewa kulingana na taifa la askari. Kulikuwa na chakula cha Mzungu, Muasia na Mwafrika, cha Mwafrika kikiwa ndicho hafifu kuliko vyote. Askari Mwingereza alipewa kile kilichokuwa kikijulikana kama, ‘’family allotment allowance,’’ ili aweze kuikimu familia yake huko kwao. Hakukuwa na ruzuku kama hiyo kwa Waafrika. Waafrika walipewa mvinyo kama sehemu ya chakula chao wakati ambapo wazungu walipewa brandi, wiski na bia. Ilikuwa tu pale Waafrika walipoanza kuingia katika mapambano na Wajapani ndipo chakula kikawa sawa kwa wote bila kujali rangi au utaifa wa askari. Chakula hiki kwa lugha ya jeshi kilijulikana kama ‘’K’’ ration nacho kilikuwa kikidondoshwa toka juu angani na ndege za Kiingereza (British Royal Air Force).

Gazeti la jeshi lililokuwa likijulikana kama Second Enchelon, lililokuwa likichapwa kila wiki na kusambazwa katika kambi za majeshi ya washirika, lilichapisha jina na nambari ya Ally kwa makosa likidai alikuwa miongoni mwa wale waliokufa baharini. Ally alipofika kwenye kambi ya Kurnegala, nje kidogo ya Colombo, Abdulwahid alikuwa amekaa hapo katika kikosi cha Service Corps kwa zaidi ya mwaka mmoja. Kikosi chake kilikuwa kikishughulikia usafirishaji na mawasiliano. Abdulwahid alikuwa anasema lugha zote mbili- Kiingereza na Kiarabu- vizuri sana; kwa sababu hii alipandishwa cheo kutoka koplo hadi kuwa sergeant. Abdulwahid alipata habari ya  ‘’kifo,’’ cha mdogo wake katika gazeti hilo la jeshi na kumpelekea habari hizo za kuhuzunisha baba yake. Ilikuwa pale tu Ally alipowasili Kurnegala na kuzungumza na Abdulwahid kwa simu ndipo ilipotambulikana kuwa alikuwa yu hai. Ally anakumbuka ilikuwa jioni alipowasili kwenye kambi hiyo. Amri ya kutotembea usiku tayari ilikuwa imeshaanza kuzingatiwa. Saa hizo hakuna askari aliyeruhusiwa kuwa nje ya kambi. Abdulwahid alikuwa katika kambi nyingine karibu na hiyo aliyofikia ndugu yake. Habari zilipomfikia kuwa mdogo wake amewasili, alipata shauku ya kumuona ndugu yake. Abdulwahid alichukua gari na kutoka kambini bila ya dereva na hali amri ya kutotembea usiku ingalipo. Wakati ule Abdulwahid alikuwa amepandishwa cheo na kuwa "Quarter Master Sergeant" na sheria za kambi hazikumzuia yeye kutoka nje ya kambi wakati wa usiku. Ingawaje kwa kawaida alikuwa na dereva wa kumuendesha, Abdulwahid aliamua kuendesha mwenyewe jeep yake kwenda kumwona mdogo wake na kupata habari kutoka nyumbani.  Majaaliwa ya binadamu yalivyo hayatabiriki, kwani dereva aliyekuwa akimuendesha Abdulwahid Burma,alikuja kushika nafasi ya  juu katika Jeshi la Ulinzi la Watu wa Tanzania.

Ally, kama askari asemaye Kiingereza, alikuwa chini ya kikosi kilichojulikana kama Education Corps. Kazi yake ilikuwa kuwafundisha Wazungu Kiswahili ili waweze kuwaamrisha Waafrika hasa wale watokao Afrika ya Mashariki. Vilevile aliwafundisha kusoma na kuandika Waafrika ambao hawakupata bahati ya kupitia shule Kadhalika aliwafundisha jinsi ya kusoma ramani ili waweze kumudu kujua njia ndani ya misitu ile ya Burma ambayo ilikuwa inababaisha sana kwa mtu asiyekuwa na maarifa ya porini. Ingawa askari kutoka Afrika walikuwa muhimu katika vita vile kama ilivyokwishaelezwa bado walidharauliwa na askari wenzao kutoka Ulaya na kwingineko. Jambo hili liliwafanya askari kutoka Afrika wajitazame upya.

Wakiwa pale Kurnegala, askari Waafrika walipata mafunzo ya kupigana msituni kwa miezi minne na kisha wakaondoka kwenda Burma kupitia Trincomalee. Kutoka hapo wakielekea Chittagong. Wakati wote huo wakiwa katika msafara walisindikizwa na British Royal Navy, meli zao zikienda polepole kwa tahadhari, zikipita njia ambayo walihisi ni shwari kutokana na mashambulizi ya Wajapani. Ilikuwa hapo Chitagong ambapo askari  walipata kwa mara ya kwanza kuonja kile kilichokuwa kikiwangoja. Kulikuwa na kitambo cha takribani kilometa kumi baina ya bandari na kambi. Barabara ilikuwa mbaya na ilikuwa imejaa matope ambayo yalifika kina cha kifundo cha miguu kutokana na mvua kubwa za monsoon.  Kambi ilikuwa chafu kwa matope yaliyotapakaa kila mahali. Askari ilibidi abebe mzigo wake mzito wa vifaa na zana, bunduki na risasi. Vilevile ilibidi wachimbe mahandaki siku hiyo hiyo kwa ajili yao wenyewe na kwa maafisa wao Wazungu. Kambi iiliwapa picha kamili ya kilichokuwa kikiwasubiri hata kabla  hawajasikia milio ya bunduki za Wajapani.

Baada ya kufika Chitagong walikaa hapo kwa siku chache kisha wakasafirishwa kwenda Imphal, Burma, kwa malori ya Jeshi la India. Imphal ina umuhimu mkubwa kwa askari wa Burma waliotoka Tanganyika. Ilikuwa ni hapa, siku ya mkesha wa Krismas mwaka 1945, ambapo Abdulwahid na askari wengine, pamoja na mdogo wake Ally na James Mkande, walifanya makubaliano ya kuunda chama cha siasa kudai uhuru wa Tanganyika mara tu watakaporudi nyumbani baada ya vita. Imphal ilikuwa ndiyo "command centre "ya askari wa Burma. Ilikuwa ukanda wa hatari  ambapo Wajapani walikuwa wakipigana hasa na Waingereza. Askari wengi kutoka Afrika waliuawa Burma wakimtumikia Mfalme ili jua lisitue katika Dola ya Waingereza. Watanganyika wengi walipotezea maisha yao huko wakipigania kuiokoa Dola ya Waingereza chini ya Mfalme George. Kulikuwa na mwimbo wa kuisifu dola ya Mwingereza uliokuwa ukiimbwa hasa mashuleni, baadhi ya maneno yake yakiwa haya:

"Dola ya Mwingereza,
Imetuletea uhuru,
Tunamsifu Baba Marehemu Kingi Joji".

Ilikuwa ni pale Anfal ambapo, huku vita vinafikia ukingoni,  Abdulwahid na askari wenzake wa Burma walikaa kitako kutafakari mambo yaliyowasibu katika vita na kuufikiria mustakbal wa Tanganyika. Iliamuliwa kuwa askari wa Burma kutoka Tanganyika waliokuwa batalioni ya sita  wawe ndio chanzo cha chama cha siasa kupigania uhuru wa Tanganyika kwa kuuhamasisha umma.  Wote waliafiki wazo hilo. Jina lililochaguliwa kukitambulisha chama hicho lilikuwa Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Ally Sykes anamkumbuka Abdulwahid kiliandika jina la chama hicho kilichokusudiwa ndani ya shajara yake. Hawa askari wa Burma walikuwa wakifahamu vyema kuwa tayari huko nyumbani kulikuwapo na African Association, chama ambacho kilikuwa kikipigania haki za Waafrika. Abdulwahid alitarajiwa afahamu hili zaidi ya wenzake kwa sababu baba yake  ndiye aliyekianzisha chama hicho akiwa katibu wake wa kwanza. Lakini suala la jinsi wangelivyokiunganisha chama hicho kipya cha TANU  na kile cha African Association ili kudai uhuru,  halikujadiliwa.

Abdulwahid alilitumikia jeshi nchini Kenya, Ceylon, India na Burma.  Hata kabla hajafikisha umri wa miaka ishirini na mmoja alikuwa amekwishapanda cheo na kufikia Regimental Sergeant Major. Hiki kilikuwa ndio cheo cha juu kabisa ambacho Mwafrika aliruhusiwa kukifikia. Cheo kingine cha juu ambacho kiliwekewa Mwafrika kilikuwa kile cha Kapteni ambacho Waingereza walimtunukia Kabaka Edward Mutesa wa Buganda na Chifu Adam Sapi Mkwawa wa Wahehe. Lakini Kabaka Mutesa na Chifu Adam Sapi Mkwawa  walitunukiwa vyeo hivi kwa sababu ya nyadhifa zao kama machifu, wakati Abdulwahid alizipata tepe zake kwa sababu ya ujasiri wake, kipaji chake cha uongozi na umaridadi wake. Vilevile Abdulwahid alivishwa nishani kadhaa, baadhi yake Burma Star na ile ya War Medal.

Baada ya Vita Vya Pili kumalizika, Wazungu waliruhusiwa kuondoka uwanja wa mapambano kurudi makwao kabla ya Waafrika, huku ikidaiwa kuwa wao walikuwa wakihitajika haraka sana huko Ulaya kwa ajili ya ujenzi wa nchi zao zilizoteketea kwa ajili ya vita. Vikosi vya Waafrika vilipewa ruhusa mwisho. Askari wa KAR kutoka Tanganyika walikusanywa katika kambi moja iliyokuwa ikijulikana kama Kalieni, nje ya Bombay, kwa ajili ya safari ya kurudi nyumbani. Walipokuwa Kalieni Abdulwahid alikutana na rafiki yake toka nyumbani, Ahmed Rashad Ali, Mzanzibari. Ahmed Rashad alikuwa mcheza kandanda mashuhuri na alikwenda India kwa masomo. Tutakutana na Ahmed Rashad hapo baadaye tutakapojadili harakati za kudai uhuru huko Zanzibar. Askari kutoka Tanganyika walikuwa na maroli ya juu walipokuwa baharini wakirudi nyumbani; kitu pekee kilichotawala mazungumzo yao kilikuwa ni jinsi wangevyoweza kuwaondoa Waingereza kutoka ardhi ya Tanganyika.

Tuesday, 31 October 2017

HABIB OMAR BIN AHMAD BIN ABUBAKAR BIN SUMEYT
1303 – 1396
1886 - 1976

Jina lake

Habib Omar bin Ahmad bin Abubakar bin Sumeyt Aal-Baalawy, nasabu yake inapita kwa Sayyid Alwy bin Muhammad (Sahibul Mirbat) ami yake Imam Muhammad (Faqihul Muqadam) bin Ali bin Muhammad (Sahibul Mirbat). Ukoo huu wa Aal Baalawy ni wajukuu wa Mtume Muhammad (Rehma na amani ziwe juu yake) kupitia kwa Sayyidna Husein bin Ali bin Abi Talib. 

Wazee wake

Babu yake Habib Abubakar ndie mzee wake wa mwanzo alietokea
Hadhramout na kufikia Ngazija na akafariki huko Ngazija mwaka 1290Hiria na baba yake Habib Ahmad ndie aliyehamia Zanzibar na akafariki Zanzibar mwaka 1343 Hijria na kuzikwa mbele ya Msikiti wa Ijumaa wa Malindi.

Kuzaliwa na kulelewa kwake

            Habib Omar alizaliwa siku ya Alkhamisi mwishoni mwa Dhulhijja mwaka 1303 AH sawa na Septemba 1886AD katika mji wa Itsandaa uliopo Ngazija (Comoro). Alilelewa malezi mazuri na mama yake aliyekuwa mchamungu Bibi Fatma bint Maalim Shanziy ambaye alipomzaa baba yake Habib Ahmad bin Sumeyt alikuwa Istanbul (Uturuki) wakati huo.
            Habib Omar alipofika umri wa miaka sita alilelewa na baba yake Habib Ahmad visiwani Zanzibar, hapo akapata malezi mazuri chini ya uangalizi wa baba yake ambaye alikuwa Mwanachuoni mkubwa wa Afrika Mashariki na Ulimwengu mzima.


Kusoma kwake

Habib Omar alipofika umri wa miaka minane alipelekwa na baba yake Hadhramout kwa ajili ya kusoma kwa Wanavyuoni wachamungu waliojaa katika miji mbalimbali ya Hadhramout.
            Alimuweka katika mji wa Shibam nyumbani kwa Mwanachuoni mkubwa Habib Tahir bin Abdalla bin Sumeyt, ambaye ni ami yake Habib Ahmad bin Sumeyt na akawa chini ya malezi yake na uangalizi wa mwanawe Habib Abdallah bin Tahir bin Sumeyt.
            Habib Omar baada ya kushiba elimu ya Shibam akapewa idhini ya kwenda kuchota elimu zaidi kwa Wanavyuoni waliokuwepo katika miji ya Hadhramout iliyokuwa maarufu kwa Elimu na Wachamungu. Alienda kusoma katika miji ya Hawta, Seyun, Tareem na kwengineko na akasoma fani tofauti na kwa kiasi kikubwa mpaka kuwapita wenzake wa rika moja.
            Habib Omar alisoma Hadhramout mpaka ujajani mwake akiwa anakwenda na kurudi Zanzibar kila baada ya muda. Alipomaliza masomo yake alirudi Zanzibar na akaongeza elimu nyingi kwa baba yake Habib Ahmad bin Sumeyt na Sheikh Abdallah Bakathir mpaka akafikia upeo mkubwa kwa fani tofauti.
            Habib Omar alibobea katika fani nyingi zikiwemo Tafsiri ya Qur-an, Hadithi, Fiqhi, Usulul Fiqhi, fani za Lugha,Tasawwuf na nyenginezo.
             

Mashekhe zake

            Habib Omar alipata fursa ya kusoma kwa Mashekhe wengi sana, kila aendapo huchota kutoka kwa Wanavyuoni wa eneo hilo, Mashekhe wake wengi walitokea Zanzibar na Hadhramout.

Baadhi ya Mashekhe zake wa Zanzibar

1.     Habib Ahmad bin Abubakar bin Sumeyt (baba yake mzazi).
2.     Sheikh Abdalla bin Muhammad Bakathir.
3.     Sheikh Said bin Muhammad bin Abdalla bin Dahman.
 Baadhi ya Mashekhe zake wa Hadhramout.
1.          Habib Aidarous bin Omar Alhabshy.
2.          Habib Ali bin Muhammad Alhabshy.
3.          Habib Abdalla bin Hasan bin Saleh Albahr.
4.          Habib Ahmad bin Hasan Al-Attas.
5.          Habib Omar bin Muhammad Alhaddad.
6.          Habib Tahir bin Abdalla bin Sumeyt.
7.          Habib Abdalla bin Tahir bin Sumeyt.
8.          Habib Ubeydillah bin Muhsin Assaggaf.
9.          Habib Ahmad bin AbdulRahman ASsaggaf.
10.    Habib Abdalla bin Ali bin Shihab.
11.    Habib Hasan bin Muhammad Balfaqiih.
12.    Habib AbdulRahman bin Muhammad AlMash-hur.
13.    Habib Abdalla bin Omar Asshatiry.
14.    Habib Salim bin Hafiidh Al Shekh Abubakar bin Salim.
15.    Habib Mustafa bin Ahmad AlMihdhaar.

Baadhi ya Mashekhe wake wa Hijaaz (Makka na Madina)

1.     Sheikh Omar bin Abubakar BaaJuneyd.
2.     Sheikh Omar Hamdan AlMahrusy.
3.     Habib Husein bin Muhammad Alhabshy.
Hao ni baadhi ya Mashekhe zake ambao wengine alisoma kwa kupiga goti na wengine kwa kupewa Ijaza na kutabaruku nao.  

Madhehebu yake

 Habib Omar bin Sumeyt alikuwa Sunni katika Akida, akifuata
Madhehebu ya Kishaafii katika Fiqhi na alikuwa na Tariqa ya wazee wake Al-Baalawy katika Tasawuf. Pia alipata ijaza za Tariqa tofauti na kuhudhuria baadhi ya hadhara zao mfano wa Tariqa ya Shadhiliya na Qadiriya.

Kusomesha kwake 

 Habib Omar baada ya kumaliza kusoma kwa Mashekhe zake wa Zanzibar alionelea vyema arejee Ngazija alikozaliwa akaanze kuwanufaisha watu kwa kuwasomesha na kuwaongoza katika kheri. Akarudi Ngazija na kusomesha wanafunzi wengi sana na watu wa Ngazija walimpenda na kumheshimu sana, pia alisomesha sana Zanzibar alipohamia mnamo mwaka 1355 Hijria baada ya kuteuliwa awe Kadhi na na Mfalme wa Zanzibar Sayyid Khalifa bin Harub.
Alikuwa na darasa baada ya Sala ya Laasiri katika msikiti wa Ijumaa wa Malindi, alikuwa akisomesha kitabu cha Fiqhi “Fat-hul Muiin” na vyenginevyo, wakihudhuria watu wengi wa kila tabaka na kila rika wakiwemo Mashekhe, watu wa kheri, vijana, wazee, wafanya biashara, na wengineo.
Aidha alikuwa na darasa nyumbani kwake kwa nyakati tofauti khasa baada ya kujiuzulu Ukadhi, ikawa wanafunzi wanafurika kujichotea kila aina za elimu.

Wanafunzi wake

Habib Omar alikuwa na wanafunzi wengi katika maeneo mbalimbali na wengi wao walikuwa ni Wanavyuoni wakubwa katika zama zao. 
Miongoni mwa wanafunzi wake wakubwa wa Afrika Mashariki (Zanzibar na Kenya) ni:
1.          Sheikh Suleiman bin Muhammad Al-Alawy.
2.          Habib Ahmad bin Husein bin Sheikh Abibakar bin Salim.
3.          Sheikh Ilyas bin Ali bin Ilyas Assinesry.
4.          Sheikh Salim bin Abdalla bin Wad-aan.
5.          Sayyid Ali bin Jaafar Al-Waht Saggaf.
6.          Sheikh Burhan Muhammad Mkele.
7.          Sayyid Abal-Hasan bin Ahmad Jamali-Leyl.
8.          Habib Ahmad Mashhur bin Taha AlHaddad (wa Kenya).
9.          Sheikh Ali bin Muhammad Baaqashmar.
10.    Sheikh Abdalla Saleh Farsy.
11.    Sayyid Muhammad bin Alwy Jamali-Leyl.
12.    Sayyid Alwy bin AbdulWahhab Jamali-Leyl.
13.    Sayyid Omar bin Abdalla Aal Sheikh (Mwenye Baraka).
14.    Sheikh Abdalla bin Ahmad Baafadhil.
15.    Sayyid Ali bin Ahmad Badawy Jamali-Leyl (wa Lamu).
16.    Sayyid Abdurahman Khitamy (wa Lamu).
17.    Sayyid Abubakar (Shibli) bin Omar Qullatein.
18.    Sayyid Said bin Abdalla Albiidh (wa Mambrui).
19.    Ustadh Muhammad bin Sharif Said Albiidh (wa Mambrui).
20.    Sayyid Muhammad bin Alwy Bunamay.
21.    Sayyid Mustafa bin Alwy  Bunamay.
22.    Sayyid Muhammad bin Adnan Aydid (wa Dar es Salaam).
23.    Sayyid AbdulQadir bin AbdulRahman Al-Juneyd (wa Dar es Salaam).             Na wengi wengine tusiowataja waliokuwa wametawanyika katika kila pembe ya dunia.

Wahudumu wake

Habib Omar alikuwa bwana mkubwa katika elimu na uchamungu, baadhi ya wanafunzi wake walijitolea kumtumikia katika hali zake za kila siku hata anapokuwa safarini.
Miongoni mwa waliowahi kumhudumia:
1.        Sheikh Said Al-Khusty, alianza kumhudumia tokea Ngazija, Madagaska na hadi alipohamia Unguja na akafariki Unguja.
2.        Sayyid Muhammad Alwy Bunamay, alipata bahati kubwa ya kuwa khadimu wa Habib Omar hadi kumuoa mjukuu wa Habib Omar kwa upande wa binti yake.
3.        Sayyid Mustafa Alwy Bunamay, ambae alisogezwa na kaka yake Sayyid Muhammad.
4.        Watoto wa nyumbani, walikuwepo watoto nyumbani kwa Habib
Omar nao walipata bahati ya kumhudumia, miongoni mwao ni Ali Amour
Bubahy, Rashid M. Seif, Sayyid Mahsen, Shee Hamadi, Sayyid
Muhammad Ahmed Al-Hindwani, Sheikh Abdallah Said Azzan na Said Ali Aboud.

Kazi alizozifanya

Habib Omar bin Sumeyt baada ya kusoma Hadhramout alirejea
Ngazija mji aliozaliwa. Alisomesha watu wengi huko Ngazija, Madagaska, Zanzibar na kwengineko, alifanya biashara mbalimbali ikiwemo ya kuuza mafuta mazuri (uturi).
Alisilimisha watu wengi Madagaska kupitia Daawa yake, alijenga misikiti, alichimbisha visima na kujenga mahodhi khasa Ngazija ambapo walikuwa wakitegemea zaidi maji ya mvua kwa kunywa na kupikia, visima alivyovichimba vimewanufaisha watu wengi na vyengine vinatowa maji hadi sasa vikiwa na khabari nyingi za maajabu.
Habib Omar alikuwa Kadhi wa Zanzibar, alihukumu kwa uadilifu mkubwa, vile vile alikuwa ni marejeo katika Fatwa kwa ukanda mzima wa Afrika Mashariki hadi nchini Afrika ya Kusini.
 

Kuchaguliwa kwake kuwa Kadhi

Ilipofika mwaka 1355 Hijria (1936 AD) aliyekuwa Mfalme wa Zanzibar Sayyid Khalifa alimteuwa Habib Omar bin Sumeyt kuwa Kadhi wa Pemba na ndio ikawa sababu ya kuhamia Zanzibar kutoka Ngazija, kisha akamchaguwa kuwa Kadhi wa Unguja mnamo mwaka 1357 Hijria.             Ilipofika mwaka 1362 Hijria (1942 AD) Sayyid Khalifa alimchaguwa Habib Omar kuwa Kadhi Mkuu wa Zanzibar wadhifa ambao alidumu nao hadi alipojiuzulu katika mwaka 1379 Hijria (1959 AD).

Habib Omar ni mzalendo katika Ukadhi wa Unguja kwani baba yake na babu yake wote walikuwa Makadhi wa Unguja.

Mambo muhimu aliyoyafanya akiwa Kadhi Mkuu Zanzibar

Habib Omar alikubali wadhifa wa Ukadhi pamoja na uzito wa wadhifa huo kutokana na haja ya Waislamu kuwa na Kadhi katika kila nchi na kwa Zanzibar yeye ndie aliyekuwa anaestahiki zaidi kuwa Kadhi.
Alikuwa muadilifu wa hali ya juu, kesi zake nyingi huzimalizia kwa suluhu bila ya kutowa hukumu, na alikuwa hawakubalii mawakili kila walisemalo bali alihukumu kulingana na Elimu aliyonayo.
Katika mambo makubwa aliyoyafanya Zanzibar ni kushauri kuwekwa mfumo mzuri wa kusimamia Mali za Wakfu. Mali nyingi za Wakfu zilikuwa hazitekelezwi manufaa yake yaliyokusudiwa, na Wakfu nyengine zilikuwa chini ya Serikali zikitumika kinyume na makusudio ya waweka Wakfu na Misikiti mingi ilikosa Mali za kuisimamia.
Akashauri kuwekwe utaratibu mzuri wa kuinufaisha Misikiti iliyokosa Mali za Wakfu ili Misikiti yote ipate kutumikiwa kama Wakfu mmoja. 

Tabia zake

Habib Omar bin Sumeyt alisifika na sifa nyingi zilizokuwa njema, alikuwa mkarimu sana, mwenye huruma, mvumilivu, msamahevu kwa wale waliomkosea, aliwapenda wanafunzi na akiwasaidia, hapendi dhuhuri, hasemi sana, alikuwa amejipangizia nidhamu maalumu katika maisha yake kwa kila jambo, alikuwa maridadi, na alisifika na sifa nyingi nyenginezo.

Hadhi yake na heshima aliyokuwa nayo

Habib Omar alikuwa Mwanachuoni Mchamungu wa kupigiwa mfano katika zama zake, kila aliyemuona hakuwacha kumsifu kwa sifa ya UchaMungu. Alipendwa na Wanavyuoni waliomsomesha na kumtanguliza katika Majlis tofauti. Wanafunzi wake walikuwa wakimuheshimu upeo wa kumheshimu, viongozi wa Kidunia walimtukuza na kumfanya katika washauri wa mambo yao hadi kutumika picha yake katika noti ya elfu kumi (10,000) ya visiwa vya Komoro.
             

Safari zake muhimu

Habib Omar alisafiri kwenda Hadhramout, Hijaz, Misri, Ngazija, Madagaska, Kenya, Somalia, Mauritius, Tanganyika na nchi nyenginezo.         Alikwenda Hadhramout (mbali na safari yake ya kusoma) mara kwa mara mji wa wazee wake na Mashekhe zake kwa ajili ya kuwaunga na kutabaruku nao kama ilivyokuwa ada ya WachaMungu ya kutembeleana.  Habib Omar ameziandika baadhi ya safari zake za Hadhramout na Hijaz, ameziandika kwa ukamilifu kila sehemu alizozuru na Mabwana aliokutana nao, Ijaza walizopeana pamoja na kuelezea matukio muhimu. Safari moja ameiita “Annafhatu-Shadhiyya” alipokwenda Hadhramout tu, pia ameiandika safari ya Hijazi na Hadhramout na kuiita “Talbiyatu- Sawt”, tungo hizo mbili zimechapishwa katika kitabu kimoja na sasa kipo mikononi mwa watu wa kheri. 
Pia imeandikwa safari yake nyengine ya Hadhramout na mwanafunzi wake Sheikh Muhammad Jubran ambayo imeitwa “Arrihlatu-
Sumaytiyyah fil-Araadhil Hadhramiyyah” nayo imechapwa karibuni kama alivyokusanya na kuiandika safari ya Habib Omar ya Misri ambayo bado haikuchapishwa.

Vitabu alivyotunga

Habib Omar alitunga baadhi ya vitabu ambavyo vimesheheni elimu pamoja na kushughulika na kazi ya Ukadhi ambayo ilimnyima muda wa kutosha wa kufaraghika na uandishi. 
Miongoni mwa vitabu vyake:
1.     “Hadiyyatul-Ikhwan” sherehe ya Aqidatul-Iman.
2.     “Annafahatul-Shadhiyyah”, Safari yake ya Hadhramout.
3.     “Talbiyatu Sawt”, safari yake ya Hijaaz na Hadhramout.
4.     Tarekhe ya baba yake Habib Ahmad bin Sumeyt na Shekhe wake
Sheikh Abdallah Bakathir, vyote vimechapwa pamoja na kitabu cha Habib Ahmad bin Sumeyt kiitwacho “Al-Ibtihaj fiy bayanil Istilahil Minhaj” 5. “Shadhiyul Azhaar”, ziara ya Habib Salim bin Hafiidh Unguja.
6. Diwani ya mashairi, bado haijachapishwa.
Mkusanyiko wa maneno yake ya hikma “Majmuu Kalam”.
“Majmuu kalaam” ni moja ya aina ya Utunzi maarufu kwa Wanavyuoni wa Tasawwuf khassa Aal-Baalawy.
Ni mkusanyiko wa matukio mbalimbali na maneno ya hikma aliyoyatowa mhusika katika hali mbalimbali. Mkusanyiko huo huandikwa na wale waliomlazimu na kuishi nae na huwa kwa utungo mzuri wenye kumvutia msomaji kiasi ya kujihisi yupo katika matukio.
Habib Omar ametungiwa “Majmuu Kalaam” yake na watu tofauti ambayo yameandikwa kwa khatti za mkono na nyakati tofauti kila mmoja na sehemu alipokutana nae.
Miongoni mwa walioandika “Majmuu Kalaam” yake ni wafuatao:
1.               Sheikh Ubeid bin Said Damis Bajubeir, alipokuwa akiishi Zanzibar.
2.               Sayyid Hadi bin Ahmad Alhaddar, alipokuwa anaishi Unguja na Pemba. 3. Sheikh Fadhil bin Muhammad bin Awadh Bafadhil alipomzuru Habib Omar Zanzibar.
4. Sheikh Omar bin Hassan bin Muhammad Arfan Barajaa, wakati Habib Omar alipokuwa Kenya, Aden, Shihr na Zanzibar.
Zote hizo zipo mbalimbali, kisha zikakusanywa katika tungo moja na Sayyid Abdul-Qadir bin Abdul-Rahman Al-Juneyd.

Zanzibar katika zama za Habib Omar bin Sumeyt

Zanzibar ilikuwa ni kitovu cha elimu ya dini ya Kiislamu katika miaka iliyopita na ilinawiri sana wakati wa Habib Omar bin Sumeyt. Wanavyuoni wengi waliokuwa baada yake walisoma kwake, watu wa kawaida walifurahishwa na mwenendo wake na wakimpa heshima kubwa. Habib Omar alikuwa na bustani yake huko Sharif Msa nje ya mji wa Zanzibar aliyoiita “Aniisah” kama Shekhe wake Habib Ali Habshy alivyokuwa nayo bustani kwa jina hilo huko Seyun Hadhramout. Kila siku ya Jumapili walimiminika Sharif Msa Wanavyuoni wa Zanzibar pamoja na wanafunzi wao pamoja na wapenzi wake kwenda kumsalimia Habib Omar na kusoma baadhi ya vitabu pamoja na kutabaruku nae, nae akiwakirimu wale waliokuwa wakimzuru.
Zanzibar katika wakati wa Habib Omar ilitembelewa na Wanavyuoni wachaMungu wakubwa sana wa Hadhramout wa zama hizo na wote walizuru Zanzibar kutokana na kuwepo kwake, ziara hizo zilikatika mara tu baada ya Habib Omar kuhamia Shihri.
Miongoni mwa Wanavyuoni waliozuru Zanzibar zama za Habib Omar ni:
1.     Habib Abdalla bin Tahir bin Sumeyt (aliyekuwa mlezi wake Shibam).
2.     Habib Salim bin Hafiidh Ibni Sheikh Abibakar bin Salim.
3.     Habib AbdulRahman bin Ubaydillah Saggaf.
4.     Habib Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafiidh.
5.     Habib AbdulQadir bin Muhammad bin Ali Alhabshy.
6.     Sheikh Fadhl bin Muhammad bin Awadh Bafadhl.
7.     Habib Ali bin Hassan Al-Attas.
8.     Habib Abubakar bin Tahir Al-Haddad.

Maneno yake ya Hekima

Habib Omar alikuwa na maneno mingi ya Hekima kwa tungo za mashairi na za kawaida. Wameyapokea wanafunzi wake maneno hayo na mengi yamo katika “Majmuu Kalam” zilizokusanywa.
Miongoni mwa maneno yake ya Hekima:
    Unapotaka raha ya kweli ya Akhera basi wacha raha za kidunia.
    Baalawy hawapendi dhuhuri tofauti na watu wengine, wanaona hilo sio ukamilifu wa mtu isipokuwa kwa yule aliyepewa idhini.
    Kulingania kwa ajili ya Allah hakuhitaji elimu kubwa wala ufasaha bali kunahitaji upole na tabia njema, na anapokumbusha mkumbushaji (anapotowa mawaidha) akamuona yule anaemnasihi ni bora kuliko yeye basi maneno huwa yanatoka moyoni na huathiri, ama akijiona yeye bora kuliko anaowanasihi basi maneno hutoka katika nafsi na yanakosa kuathiri wasikilizaji.

Kuhama kwake Zanzibar

  Baada ya Mapinduzi ya Zanzibar  mwaka 1964 Habib Omar alipendelea kuishi Shihr  moja ya miji maarufu ya Hadhramout na akahamia mwaka 1385 Hijria (1965 AD), akaishi huko kwa kipindi akinufaisha watu kwa elimu yake.
Habib Omar aliombwa na Maraisi wawili wa visiwa vya Komoro ahamie Ngazija alikozaliwa na walipo jamaa zake wengi nae akaamua kuhamia visiwa vya Komoro na ndipo alipomalizia uhai wake wa duniani.

Kufariki kwake

Habib Omar alifia katika visiwa vya Ngazija katika mji aliozaliwa Itsandaa usiku wa kuamkia Jumanne tarehe 9 Safar mwaka 1396 Hijria sawa na tarehe 10/2/1976 akiwa na miaka tisiini na tatu takiriban.
Ilikuwa ni siku ya huzuni kubwa kwa Waislamu wote wa Ngazija na Afrika ya Mashariki.
Maziko yake yalihudhuriwa na umma wa watu kutoka kila pembe ya  Afrika Mashariki na akasaliwa na kuzikwa na watu wa kheri akiwemo Sayyid  AbdulQadir bin AbdulRahman Al-Juneyd ambae alishiriki kushuka kaburini.

Familia yake

  Habib Omar hakuwa na watoto wa kiume, kizazi chake kimeendelea kupitia kwa Sayyid Muhammad Bunamay aliyemuoa mjukuu wake kwa upande wa bint yake. Habib Omar alikuwa na ndugu wa kiume anaeitwa Habib Abubakar aliyefariki Unguja, pia alikuwa na ndugu wa kike.

Hizi ni miongoni mwa khabari za Bwana huyu mtukufu, na amesifiwa na kutajwa kwa kheri na Wanavyuoni wengi wa kila pembe ya Dunia, tumeyakusanya haya kwa ufupi kuepuka kumchosha msomaji.
Rejea:
1.   Kitabu “Baadhi ya Wanavyuoni wa Mashariki ya Afrika” cha Sheikh Abdallah Saleh Farsi.
2.   Kitabu cha maisha ya Habib Omar “Nubdhah min hayatil Imam Al-
Allamah Habib Omar bin Sumeyt” cha Sayyid AbdulQadir AlJuneyd.
3.   Kitabu “Uqudul-Jaaizah” cha Sayyid AbdulQadir AlJuneyd
4.   Kurasa alizoandika Sayyid Abubakar (Shibli) Qullatein kuhusu Habib Omar.
5.   Majmuu kalaam za Habib Omar alizozikusanya Sayyid AbdulQadir Al-Juneyd kutoka kwa watunzi wanne.









Aliyesimama Nyuma ya Masheikh ni Abbas Sykes na Waliokaa Kulia ni 
Sheikh Omar bin Sumeit na Kushoto ni Sheikh Ahmed bin Hussein
Wakati hii miaka ya mwanzoni 1960 Abbas Sykes Alikuwa Regional Commissioner
wa Jimbo la Mashariki

Maahad Juneyd Islamiy
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